How to Begin the Process of Adopting a Child


Adoption is full of emotions – some positive and some negative. Overall, it can be an amazing experience when the proper preparation is in place. The question is, have you planned?

Common Types of Adoption

There are several types of adoption – each with its nuances and complexities. Understanding which type of adoption you’re interested in will help you make more educated decisions on how to proceed.

Domestic adoption refers to any adoption involving a child who is born and resides within the same country as the adoptive parents. These adoptions can happen through several different entities, including private agencies, attorneys, or adoption agencies.

Within the category of domestic adoption, you have the subcategory of foster care adoption. This is an adoption that is processed through the state’s foster care system after a birth parents’ rights have been terminated or relinquished.

International adoption refers to adopting a child from another country. This type of adoption is usually more complicated, as it involves numerous challenges related to bureaucracy, questionable background information, and cultural adjustments for the child.

Then there’s the category of family or ‘stepchild adoption.’ It might seem odd that a stepparent would need to legally adopt a stepchild, but some benefits come with it.

“By adopting your stepchildren, you guarantee them the right to health insurance through your employer, as well as any social security and veterans benefits you qualify for,” adoption attorney Rowdy G. Williams points out. “Your children can take your name, and both you and them will know that you fully belong together as a family.”

There are certainly other terms people use for different types of adoption, but these categories give you a basis for understanding 99 percent of adoptions. Once you know what they are, you have a little clarity on how to proceed.

Understanding the Legal Requirements


Adoption involves specific legal terms that any prospective adoptive parent should familiarize themselves with, including phrases like “adoption decree,” “termination of parental rights,” “consent,” and “adoption finalization.” You’re going to want to take some time to do careful research on these terms so that you’re very clear on exactly what steps you’re taking and where the potential challenges lie.

For example, if you’re doing a private domestic adoption with a parent of a newborn child, you’ll need to understand the legal rights of the birth parents. Procedures for relinquishing or terminating parental rights vary by state, and prospective adoptive parents must navigate these aspects as part of the adoption process. If you’re adopting from out of state, the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC) comes into play.

Choosing the Right Adoption Attorney

Feeling overwhelmed by all of the legal complexities and jargon surrounding adoption? The good news is that you can (and should) work with an adoption attorney who understands all of these different factors and elements.

Different adoption attorneys have different areas of expertise. For example, one attorney might specialize in international adoptions from China, while another attorney might focus on local adoptions through the foster care system. Make sure you select an attorney who aligns with your needs.

Preparing for Home Studies

One of the key steps in domestic adoption is the home study evaluation. This is where a licensed investigator – either with the foster care system or through a private adoption agency – enters into your home to better understand the environment you would be welcoming a child into.

The home study involves a series of interviews, evaluations, and assessments conducted by a licensed social worker or agency representative. Its primary purpose is to assess the readiness and suitability of prospective adoptive parents to become caregivers. This assessment isn’t meant to pass judgment but to ensure the best interests of the child.

The best thing you can do to prepare for a home study is to have your home well-kept and prepare for the questions you’re likely to be asked.

Financial Considerations


Adoption, while fulfilling, comes with significant financial considerations that prospective parents must prepare for. Understanding the costs involved in the adoption process is crucial. These costs can vary widely depending on the type of adoption—be it through an agency, foster care system, or international adoption. Expenses often include legal fees, home study costs, and travel expenses, among others. Adoptive parents need to research and understand these costs in advance. Additionally, exploring options for financial assistance, such as grants, tax credits, and employer-provided adoption benefits, can provide substantial support. Budgeting for these expenses is an essential part of the adoption journey, ensuring that financial strain doesn’t overshadow the joy of welcoming a new family member.

Support Systems

Building a robust support system is integral to the adoption process. Joining adoption support groups offers an avenue to connect with others who have navigated or are navigating the adoption journey. These groups can provide emotional support, practical advice, and a sense of community. Experienced adoptive parents can offer invaluable insights from their personal experiences. Furthermore, connecting with local adoption agencies or organizations can provide resources and guidance specific to your area and situation. These support networks can be instrumental in helping prospective parents through the challenges and joys of adoption.

Open vs. Closed Adoptions

Understanding the differences between open and closed adoptions is crucial for adoptive parents and birth parents alike. In open adoptions, there’s ongoing communication or contact between the adoptive family, the child, and the birth parents. This can range from sending letters and photos to in-person visits. Closed adoptions, conversely, involve no contact and often no exchange of identifying information. Each type has its implications for all parties involved, particularly the child. Prospective adoptive parents should consider these differences carefully and decide which type aligns best with their family dynamics and the interests of the child.

Adoption Agencies

Choosing the right adoption agency is a pivotal step in the adoption process. Prospective parents should seek agencies that are accredited and have a good track record. Important factors include the agency’s transparency regarding costs and processes, its approach to matching children with families, and the support it offers post-adoption. It’s advisable to conduct thorough research, seek reviews or testimonials from other adoptive families, and have detailed discussions with potential agencies. A reputable agency will not only facilitate a smoother adoption process but also provide ongoing support and resources.


Making Sure You’re Emotionally Prepared

There’s nothing casual about adopting a child. It’s a life-changing event for both the child and the family. With that being said, it can be one of the most rewarding experiences you’ll ever have. You just have to be thorough in how you approach adoption.

Let this article serve as a starting point in your journey as you awaken your eyes to some of the steps involved in the process.

Written by Kan Dail